Curriculum in Mengrai School: The Basic Education Core Curriculum B.E. 2551 (A.D. 2008)


The Basic Education Core Curriculum is aimed at the full development of learners in all respects—morality, wisdom, happiness, and potentiality for further education and livelihood. The following goals have consequently been set for achievement upon completing basic education:

1. Morality, ethics, desirable values, self-esteem, self-discipline, observance of Buddhist teachings or those of one’s faith, and guiding principles of Sufficiency Economy;

2. Knowledge and skills for communication, thinking, problem-solving, technological know-how, and life skills;

3. Good physical and mental health, hygiene, and preference for physical exercise;

4. Patriotism, awareness of responsibilities and commitment as Thai citizens and members of the world community, and adherence to a democratic way of life and form of government under constitutional monarchy; and

5. Awareness of the need to preserve all aspects of Thai culture and Thai wisdom, protection and conservation of the environment, and public-mindedness with dedication to public service for peaceful and harmonious co-existence.

Learners’ Key Competencies

The Basic Education Core Curriculum is aimed at inculcating among learners the following five key competencies:

1. Communication Capacity

Capacity to receive and transmit information; linguistic ability and skills in expressing one’s thoughts, knowledge and understanding, feelings and opinions for exchanging information and experience, which will be beneficial to oneself and society; negotiation for solving or reducing problems and conflicts; ability to distinguish and choose whether to receive or avoid information through proper reasoning and sound judgement; and ability to choose efficient methods of communication, bearing in mind possible negative effects on oneself and society.

2. Thinking Capacity

Capacity for analytical, synthetic, constructive, critical and systematic thinking, leading to creation of bodies of knowledge or information for judicious decision-making regarding oneself and society.

3. Problem–Solving Capacity

Capacity to properly eliminate problems and obstacles, based on sound reasoning, moral principles and accurate information; appreciation of relationships and changes in various social situations; ability to seek and apply knowledge to prevent and solve problems; and ability for judicious decision-making, bearing in mind possible negative effects on oneself, society and the environment.

4. Capacity for Applying Life Skills

Capacity for applying various processes in daily life; self-learning; continuous learning; working; and social harmony through strengthening of happy interpersonal relationships; elimination of problems and conflicts through proper means; ability for selfadjustment to keep pace with social and environmental changes; and capacity for avoiding undesirable behaviour with adverse effects on oneself and others.  

5. Capacity for Technological Application

Ability to choose and apply different technologies; skills in application of technological processes for development of oneself and society in regard to learning, communication, working, and problem-solving through constructive, proper, appropriate and ethical means.

What is learned in foreign languages

The learning area for foreign languages is aimed at enabling learners to acquire a favourable attitude towards foreign languages, the ability to use foreign languages for communicating in various situations, seeking knowledge, engaging in a livelihood and pursuing further education at higher levels. Learners will thus have knowledge and understanding of stories and cultural diversity of the world community, and will be able to creatively convey Thai concepts and culture to the global society. The main contents include:   
            · Language for Communication: use of foreign languages for listening, speaking, reading and writing, exchanging data and information, expressing feelings and opinions, 253 interpreting, presenting data, concepts and views on various matters, and creating interpersonal relationships appropriately

· Language and Culture: use of foreign languages harmonious with culture of native speakers; relationships, similarities and differences between languages and cultures of native speakers; languages and cultures of native speakers and Thai culture; and appropriate application

· Language and Relationship with Other Learning Areas: use of foreign languages to link knowledge with other learning areas, forming the basis for further development, seeking knowledge and broadening learners’ world views

· Language and relationship with Community and the World: use of foreign languages in various situations, both in the classroom and the outside community and the global society, forming a basic tool for further education, livelihood and exchange of learning with the global society

Foreign Languages

Strand 1: Language for Communication

Standard F1.1: Understanding and capacity for interpreting what has been heard and read from various types of media, and ability to express opinions with proper reasoning

Standard F1.2: Possessing language communication skills for effective exchange of data and information; efficient expression of feelings and opinions

Standard F1.3: Ability to present data and information, concepts and views on various matters by speaking and writing Strand

2: Language and Culture

Standard F 2.1: Appreciating relationship between language and culture of native speakers and capacity for use of language appropriate to occasions and places

Standard F2.2: Appreciating similarities and differences between language and culture of native speakers and Thai speakers, and capacity for correct and appropriate use of language

Strand 3: Language and Relationship with Other Learning Areas

Standard F 3.1: Using foreign languages to link knowledge with other learning areas and as foundation for further development, to seek knowledge and widen one’s world view

Strand 4: Language and Relationship with Community and the World

Standard F4.1: Ability to use foreign languages in various situations in school, community and society

Standard F4.2: Using foreign languages as basic tools for further education, livelihood and exchange of learning with the world community

Number of Students

Secondary school High school
Level Male Female Total Level Male Female Total
Grade 7 97 82 179 Grade 10 72 58 130
Grade 8 74 85 159 Grade 11 67 80 147
Grade 9 114 109 223 Grade 12 83 77 160
Total 285 276 561 Total 222 215 437
Total 998


There are 3 main buildings, 1 multi-purpose building, 2 workshops, 1 canteen, 1 auditorium, 1 library, 1 guard house, 5 teacher’s houses, 2 janitor’s houses, 5 water closets, 5 sports fields, and 1 student’s garage.

There are 170 computers, 1 external telephone, 1 fax machine, 50 televisions, 25 VCDs, 21 printers, 7 overhead projectors, 4 cars.


Speaking and Listening Rubric

Exemplary (4) Proficient (3) Developing (2) Beginning (1)
Content   Consistently presents information in a logical, sequence with strong supporting evidenceConsistently uses appropriate grammar, vocabularyConsistently uses correct pronunciation Regularly presents information in a logical, sequence with strong supporting evidenceRegularly uses appropriate grammar and vocabularyRegularly uses correct pronunciation Presents information with some supporting evidenceUses grammar and vocabulary that is partially correctPronunciation is often incorrect Presents some information with little or no supporting evidenceUses little or no correct grammar and/or vocabularyPronunciation is incorrect
Delivery Consistently speaks clearly, confidently, and fluidly Consistently uses proper diction and intonation Consistently uses appropriate eye contact and posture

Regularly speaks clearly, confidently, and fluidlyRegularly uses proper diction and intonationRegularly uses appropriate eye contact and posture Speaks somewhat clearly, confidently, and fluidlyUses some proper diction and intonationUses some appropriate eye contact and posture Does not speak clearly, confidently, and fluidlyDoes not use proper diction and/or intonationDoes not use appropriate eye contact and posture
Responsiveness Consistently listens attentivelyConsistently understands and responds appropriately Regularly listens attentivelyRegularly understands and responds appropriately Sometimes listens attentivelyPartially understands and responds somewhat appropriately Does not listen attentivelyDoes not understand and/or respond appropriately

Reading Rubric

  Poor (1)

Fair (2)

Good (3)

Main idea  Misidentifies main ideas, or fails to identify the main idea   Identifies main idea but cannot identify supporting details   Identifies main idea as well as supporting details  
Fact Cannot identify any facts and/or a limited number of facts, and/or confuses facts and opinions   Identifies only a minimal number of facts and/or identifies nonfactual elements   Identifies most and/ or all facts, with no confusion with opinions or other elements  
Context Cannot identify contextual references to interpret meaning   Identifies minimal contextual references to interpret meaning   Identifies most contextual references to interpret meaning  
Sequence Cannot identify keywords or sequential textual passages   Identifies sequential elements of messages but has trouble with the re-organization of the sequential elements   Exhibits ability to identify sequential elements as well as the ability to re-organize the elements into a sequential order  
Inference Cannot conclude inferred messages nor identify prose that may infer them, and/or misconcludes inferred messages   Identifies limited inferred messages, or recognizes but misinterprets the inference   Can identify when messages are inferred and can conclude accurate meaning  
Conclusion Cannot identify or summarize conclusion, and/or lacks the ability to speculate conclusion   Can identify most conclusions but exhibits difficulty in speculating conclusion   Can identity conclusion and can speculate conclusion  

Writing rubric

Criteria Exemplary (4) Accomplished (3) Developing (2) Beginning (1)
Main idea The writing has a clearly- articulated main idea supported by reliable and relevant evidence The writing has a clearly articulated main idea supported by adequate evidence and sound logic. The writing has a main idea supported by some evidence. The writing may need a more clearly articulated main idea. Supporting evidence is lacking.
Organization The writing flows smoothly and logically from a well- defined main idea. The writing is organized logically and flows well. It contains a well-developed structure. The writing demonstrates rudimentary organization and logical structure, but ideas need to be more fully developed by more appropriate evidence. The writing is noticeably lacking in organization. There is no clear structure.
Style The writing engages the reader through an original prose style appropriate to the subject. The writing keeps the reader’s attention through a carefully crafted prose style. The writing is clear but could be expressed in a style more appropriate to the subject. The writing lacks clarity and is sometimes confusing.
grammar The writing contains sentences that are always complete and grammatically correct, and free of confusion and ambiguity. The writing contains sentences that are complete or which imply unstated connections and/ or conclusions. The writing may exhibit a few minor errors in grammar or style, but they do not impair the flow of the reading. The writing contains some grammatical errors easily corrected by adherence to a uniform style throughout. The writing is confusing and ambiguous owing to substantial errors of grammar.

Relationships in the Development of Learners’ Quality According to the Basic Education Core Curriculum


The Basic Education Core Curriculum is aimed at enhancing capacity of all learners, who constitute the major force of the country, so as to attain a balanced development in all respects – physical strength, knowledge and morality. They will fully realize their commitment and responsibilities as Thai citizens and members of the world community. Adhering to a democratic form of government under constitutional monarchy, they will be endowed with basic knowledge and essential skills and favourable attitude towards further education, livelihood and lifelong learning. The learner-centred approach is therefore strongly advocated, based on the conviction that all are capable of learning and self-development to their highest potentiality.

Desirable Characteristics

1. Love of nation, religion and king

2. Honesty and integrity

3. Self-discipline

4. Avidity for learning

5. Observance of principles of Sufficiency Economy Philosophy in one’s way of life

6. Dedication and commitment to work

7. Cherishing Thai-ness

8. Public-mindedness

Learning Standards and Indicators for Eight Learning Areas

1. Thai Language

2. Mathematics

3. Science

4. Social Studies, Religion and Culture

5. Physical and Health Education

6. Arts

7. Occupations and Technology

8. Foreign Languages

Learner Development Activities

1. Counselling activities

2. Student activities

3. Activities for social and public interest

Learning Assessment

Learning assessment must be based on two fundamental principles, i.e., evaluation for the purpose of developing the learners’ capacity and for appraising their achievements. With a view to succeeding in developing the learners’ learning quality, learners must be strengthened and assessed by availing of the relevant indicators, so as to achieve the learning standards prescribed. Such evaluation also reflects the learners’ major capacities and their desirable characteristics, which are the main goals of measuring and evaluating the learning outcomes at all levels, i.e., classroom level, educational institution level, educational service area level, and national level. Learning assessment is a process of enhancing the learners’ quality by using assessment results as data and information to show learners’ developmental progress and accomplishment. The data will also be useful for strengthening the learners, thus enabling them to learn to their highest potentiality.

Classroom assessment

Measurement and evaluation are part of the learning process. Teachers regularly and continuously measure and evaluate students’ performance in teaching-learning activities by using diverse assessment techniques, e.g., asking questions, observing, examining homework, assessing projects, tasks/assignments and portfolios, and using written tests, etc. Teachers will conduct evaluations themselves or provide learners with opportunities for self evaluation, peer-to-peer evaluation, and evaluation by parents. Learners who do not succeed in meeting the standards prescribed in the indicators will need remedial measures for teaching and learning.

Classroom assessment s aimed at verifying whether and to what extent learners have achieved development and progress in learning through the provided teaching-learning activities, and determining what must be improved and which areas must be strengthened. Furthermore, evaluation also provides teachers with necessary data for improving their own performance, which must be in accord with the established learning standards and indicators.

School assessment

This evaluation is conducted by the educational institution in order to appraise the learners’ achievements on an annual/semester basis, based on assessment of reading, analytical thinking and writing, desirable characteristics, and learner development activities. The aim is also to obtain relevant information about whether education provided by the educational institution has enabled learners to reach their goals of learning, and what are the learners’ strengths. The learning outcomes can also be compared with national assessment criteria. School assessment will provide data and information for improving policy, curriculum, projects and teaching-learning methodology. Evaluation outcomes are also useful for preparation of each educational institution’s educational quality development plan in accord with the educational quality assurance guidelines, as well as reports on each educational institution’s achievement to its school board, the office of the educational service area, OBEC, parents and the community.

Criteria for Learning Assessment

     In judging the learning outcomes of various subject areas, reading, analytical thinking and writing, desirable characteristics and learner development activities, the teachers must base their judgement on development of individual learners. Teachers are required to regularly and continuously collect the learners’ data in all respects for each semester, as well as provide remedial measures, enabling learners to develop to their highest potentiality.

Secondary education level

(1) Teachers will judge the learning outcomes of all courses. Learners must have an attendance record of not less than 80% of the total learning time required for the respective courses for each semester;

(2) Learners must be assessed on all indicators and must pass all the criteria prescribed by the educational institutions;

(3) Learners must be judged on the learning outcomes of each course; and

(4) Learners must be evaluated and must pass all the criteria prescribed by the educational institutions regarding reading, analytical thinking and writing, desirable characteristics and learner development activities.

Published by ahbimahdianr

Ahbi Mahdianing Rum, a student from University of Bengkulu and majoring in math education

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